Types of Foods, Plants, Animals, && Predator/Prey Relationship..

Types of Food && Plants
In tundra, the vegetation is composed of woody (dwarf) shrubs, sedges and grasses, mosses, and lichens.

Woody Shrubs are dwarfed because of the extreme cold and winds. They are only a few inches tall and are protected from extreme weather by only a cover of dead and living, non-woody plants.

Sedges are a part of the (flowering) plant family Cyperacaeae. Two important types to the arctic tundra are Carex and Cottongrass (Eriophorum). During cold months, Perennial Forbs are vacant and shrink down to small leaves or die completely. When the growing season returns, the energy stored in the plant’s bulbs makes it grow tremendously when the temperature reaches 50ºF (10ºC) and above.

Lichens are typically bare rock pioneers which are found in all biomes. Lichens are actually an association of fungi and algae which live together as one organism. One type common to the arctic tundra is Reindeer lichen; which is an important food for many arctic herbivores.

Animals && Predator/Prey Relationship
The alpine and arctic tundra’s animals must adapt around the seasons and the availability of food. Many animals that can’t adapt to the arctic and alpine tundra’s extreme winter weather, migrate to the tundra during the spring and summer each year. A variety of birds make the arctic tundra their top choice for nesting spots and food during the spring and summer seasons. Millions of ducks, loons, gulls, geese and sandpipers migrate from the South just for this purpose. An example of a migrating bird is the arctic tern. The arctic tern migrates from the Arctic to Antarctica and back all to  the arctic. They travel more than 22,000 miles (36,000 km), a distance longer than any other migrating animal. Of course there are other animals that come to the arctic tundra during the spring and summer seasons to take advantage of the agreeable weather and bountiful food. Animals like the caribou travel thousands of miles to graze on plants and raise their young. Other migrators include buffalo, wolf, bald eagles, gray falcons, ducks, gulls, geese, swans, waterfowl, and polar bears.

Geographic Location, Weather && Climate, Ecological Issues && Concerns, && Human Impact

Geograpic Location
Arctic tundra can be found in Antarctica and the North Pole. It can also be found in Northern parts of Canada, Alaska, Greenland, and the United States.

Weather && Climate
The arctic tundra’s climate is dramatically different than any other of the world’s biomes. Winters are long, cold and dark, while in the summers experience light temperatures and 24 hour sunlight. In the fall, the arctic tundra’s sun disappears below the horizon and does not rise for 66 days from mid-November to late January. This occurs because of the earth’s tilt. In the winter, the Northern Hemisphere, where the arctic tundra is located, tilts away from the sun. During this time, the tundra’s temperatures can drop to -70ºC (-94ºF). Strong winds blow through the tundra also bringing down temperatures with the wind chill factor (makes air feel colder than it really is). For six months or longer, the arctic tundra remains covered in ice, seemingly lifeless.

In the winter, the arctic tundra seems uninhabitable. Life is no where to be found. However, during the spring and summer seasons, the tundra is filled with life. This is because during the spring equinox, the Northern Hemisphere is showered by constant sun light. For 84 days, from late May to early August, the tundra sun never sets. This is because the arctic regions of the earth are tilted toward the sun, the opposite of what happens in the winter when the arctic regions are tilted away from the sun. With the sun continuously shining, the ice from the winter season begins to melt quickly. During the spring and summer seasons animals are always active, and plants begin to grow quickly. The growing season for the tundra is relatively short; lasting six to ten weeks. Comfortable temperatures, sometimes reaching 30ºC (85ºF), also last for a short time. The occasional winds and summer snow storms have a tendency to interrupt any good weather from lasting too long.

In the Southern Hemisphere or Antarctica, where arctic tundra is also located, the seasons are reversed. The earths tilt is once again the reason for this. While the Northern Hemisphere is experiencing 24 hours of darkness, the Southern Hemisphere is experiencing 24 hours of light. The land and climate in these separate hemispheres are affected the same, just at different times of the year.

Ecological Issues && Concerns
About 14,000 years ago, the Arctic climate began to change, resulting in massive  extinctions of Ice Age plants and animals. Today, many scientists fear that  history may be repeating itself. The depletion of the protective ozone layer  over the polar regions, caused in large part by the chlorofluorocarbons used for  decades as aerosol propellants and refrigerants, has allowed sunlight to heat up  permafrost, which stores massive quantities of carbon dioxide. As this  “greenhouse gas” is released into the atmosphere, ground temperatures rise  further, prompting deeper melting of permafrost and speeding up the warming  process. The Pew Center on Global Climate Change warns that as a consequence of  rising land temperatures, a meltdown of polar ice masses could contribute to a  rise in sea levels and cause widespread flooding of coastal areas around the  world. Other experts, such as Professor Greg Henry of the University  of British Columbia, predict that this could happen within the next few decades.

The tundra is rich in oil, gas and mineral reserves that can’t  be extracted without disturbances to the ecosystem. The infrastructure needed  for such industrial development includes networks of roads for vehicular  transportation, pipelines and factory complexes, all of which add to the strain  on the land. As the tiny, delicate plant life indigenous to the tundra is  destroyed, the food chain is disrupted because when herbivores starve or migrate  elsewhere for food, carnivores starve too.

According to the Canadian Arctic Resources Committee, chemicals generated by  heavy industry in eastern Europe are a major source of polar pollution but heavy  metals and toxins from as far away as southeast Asia have been found in the  tissues of terrestrial, aquatic and marine animals. Ocean currents and  atmospheric circulation carry the pollutants from the lower latitudes and  because of the region’s extreme cold and reduced sunlight, they don’t break  down, remaining poisonous much longer than they would in other climatic  conditions. Radioactive fallout from the testing of nuclear weapons in the 1960s  and early 1970s is also still detectable throughout the Arctic.

Human Impact
Every year, thousands of tourists aboard luxury cruise ships depart from ports  in North America and Europe to experience the austere beauty of the Arctic,  creating more pressure on the ecosystem. The tourism industry, including sport fishing and hunting,  has also increased the volume of noisy airplane and helicopter traffic, raising  levels of air pollution and sparking panic leading to egg loss in bird colonies.  Plant life trampled underfoot won’t regenerate for decades and no disposal  facilities exist for garbage left behind on the permafrost by human visitors.

Landforms, Bodies of Water, Etc..

When the snow above the soil layer melts, the water remains on the surface of the soil. This is because water cannot be absorbed by the permafrost (a permanent layer of frozen ground below the soil), leaving the top layer of the soil wet and soggy. Evaporation of the water is impossible. The arctic tundra’s cool air does not allow evaporation. The arctic tundra landscape is formed by the freezing, thawing and refreezing of this soggy soil. This type of land formation is only unique to the arctic tundra. There are five types of different land formations by the power of freezing water: pingos, frost boils, bumpy ground, polygons, and stripes.

Pingos are hills which are formed by ponds of water that were trapped under permafrost. Every year, as the ponds thaw and then freeze, the hill above the ground grows taller and taller. They can grow up to 150 feet (50 meters) tall.

Frost boils are ever widening circles of stones caused by the thawing and freezing of water. As water thaws then freezes, large rocks are pushed out and form growing rock circles on the soil layer.

When the ground varies, thawing and freezing occur because of plant cover, rocks, or small ponds, and bumpy ground is formed. As all these different sections of ground cover pull and push against each other, bumps, along with tiny valleys and hills can form in the ground.

Polygons are geometric land shapes that are between 10 – 100 feet (3 – 30 meters) wide and are outlined by cracks that are filled with water. These cracks can deepen and widen forming streams and (sometimes) a shallow pond. Stripes occur on hillsides when thawing and freezing cause rocks to be sorted by particle size.

Thawing and freezing of water is not the only reason the arctic tundra shapes. Earthquakes shake the ground and volcanoes shape mountains. Gravity also plays an important part. The water which causes the arctic tundra’s soggy ground flows downhill. This slow downhill flow of water is called solifluction. Solifluction is a sure-fire way that the tundra is changing.